Rewilding Torreya taxifolia
to Waynesville, North Carolina, July 2008

31 potted seedlings planted into natural forest habitats

photo-essay by Connie Barlow

   

Feature Article
Audubon Magazine
May/June 2010:
"Guardian Angels"



  
  

Torreya Guardians Connie Barlow and Michael Dowd were among the 11 individuals undertaking the rewilding or documenting the action. Flat palms indicate tops of seedling Torreya taxifolia newly planted (30 July 2008). Seedlings were named for inspiring conservationists (e.g., Aldo Leopold) or botanists (e.g., Chauncey Beadle).

Click to go immediately to detailed information and UPDATES for:

  • PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION and UPDATES of the 10 seedlings planted at LAKE JUNALUSKA, NC

  • PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION and UPDATES of the 21 seedlings planted WAYNESVILLE, NC

  • "WHAT WE ARE LEARNING ABOUT TORREYA'S HABITAT PREFERENCES" (current report)




  • Roster of Rewilders and Documenters

  • Connie Barlow is the Torreya Guardians founder and webmaster, and coauthor (with Paul S. Martin) of the original published advocacy piece, "Bring Torreya taxifolia North — Now", Wild Earth Fall 2004. Also, author of The Ghosts of Evolution: Nonsensical Fruit, Missing Partners, and Other Ecological Anachronisms (Basic Books, 2001) and 3 previous books on evolution. As a contributing writer for Wild Earth magazine, her goal was "to bring a deep-time perspective to deep ecology." She now travels the USA in a van with her husband, Michael Dowd, as "America's evolutionary evangelists". Connie's publications list. Note: Click here to access Connie's personal reflection on the rewilding action, in PDF or mp3 AUDIO.

  • Lee Barnes is the Torreya Guardian who communicated with the owners/managers of the two properties involved in this rewilding action. Lee lives in Waynesville NC, and he walked the properties in advance of the planting to select and flag sites where the potted seedlings would be installed. He will be in charge of collaborating with the landowner of Site #2 in order to monitor and assist the success of the 21 rewilded individuals. Lee directed the distribution of seeds donated to Torreya Guardians in 2005 and 2007 by Biltmore Gardens. He is a North American leader in permaculture and bioregionalism; his PhD research entailed esablishing clones from root cuttings of Torreya taxifolia.

  • Jack Johnston is the Torreya Guardian who transported the 30 seedlings from Woodlanders Nursery in Aiken SC to his home near Clayton GA and then to the rewilding sites near Waynesville NC. Jack is a consummate horticulturalist; in 2007 he purchased (from Woodlanders) and planted 7 T. taxifolia seedlings at his home (elevation 1600 feet) and collected (with permission) seeds from the young T. taxifolia orchard established at Smithgall Woodsphoto in his home region of NE Georgia (nearly 20 of which sprouted in his outdoor seed bed in July 2008).

  • Linda McFarland is coauthor (with Janet Lilley) of Seasons in a Wildflower Refuge: An Illustrated Guide to the Corneille Bryan Native Garden, Lake Junaluska NC. She is a master gardener and wildflower enthusiast.

  • Jane Thomas is a horticulturalist at Corneille Bryan Native Garden. She has a forestry degree from the University of New Hampshire, and has worked as a soil scientist and resource forester in the National Forests in North Carolina.

  • Russell Regnery helps look after a small tract of forested property at 4,000 feet elevation between Franklin and Highlands, NC. He plans to plant T. taxifolia seedlings from Woodlanders Nursery in Aiken SC and hopefully establish another mountain refuge for the species on private land in western North Carolina.

  • Michael Dowd is husband of Torreya Guardians founder Connie Barlow. He is an enthusiastic supporter of bringing a deep-time, evolutionary perspective not only into conservation biology but also into his own area of expertise and mission: religion (especially Christianity). An ordained minister, Michael is the author of the 2008 book, Thank God for Evolution, which has been endorsed by 5 Nobel laureates and leaders across the science-religion spectrum.

  • Janet Marinelli is a freelance writer and author of botanical and gardening books. She joined on for this rewilding action as part of her research for an article on assisted migration commissioned by Audubon magazine for the March 2009 issue. Click for her homepage. Click here to access Janet's personal reflections on the rewilding (PDF) (2008), and her Feature Article on this event, "Guardian Angels," which was published in the May/June 2010 issue of Audubon Magazine

  • Ken Gehle is a photographer commissioned by Audubon magazine to photodocument the Torreya rewilding action (and the Atlanta Botanical Garden Torreya propagation the previous day). Click here for his homepage. Sadly, Ken died 18 months later.

  • Chris Carder served as Ken Gehle's photography assistant at this event.

  • Don Hooker describes his contribution during the rewilding as "water hauler and chief witness." He's an urban designer who has worked inside and outside of New York City government for the past 25 years to make Gotham a more beautiful and sustainable place.




    Activity No. 1: Photoshoot at Jack Johnston's Home


    Jack Johnston with pawpaw
    at his home near Clayton, Georgia.

       At 10:00 pm on 29 July 2008, Torreya Guardians Connie Barlow and Michael Dowd arrived in their van at Jack Johnston's mountain home south of Clayton, Georgia. Jack led Connie on a horticultural tour by flashlight, while Michael used Jack's phone to call into a Catholic XM Radio station for an interview that had been scheduled about his book and his evolutionary evangelism work.

    At 8:00 am on 30 July 2008, the documenters commissioned by Audubon magazine arrived at Jack's place: freelance writer Janet Marinelli (with husband Don Hooker) and photographer Ken Gehle (with assistant Chris Carder). Jack hosted Janet on a tour of his plants, while Ken and Chris set up the lighting and other equipment for the photoshoot of Jack with his trove of potted seedlings awaiting "assisted migration" northward. Janet and Ken had spent the previous day at Atlanta Botanical Garden, documenting that institution's success in propagating this highly endangered conifer pursuant to management plans congruent with the US Fish and Wildlife Service's implementation of the Endangered Species Act.

          

    Endangered Florida Yew being rooted from branch cuttings.
      
    Jack Johnston's horticultural shelter.

    Smithgall Woods 2007 seed harvest sprouting at Jack's.
      
    Torreya sprouts. (Mesh deters squirrels from seeds.)

    Ken Gehle setting up photoshoot of Jack with seedlings.
      
    Jack moving seedlings to his car for assisted migration.




    Activity No. 2: Rewilding at Corneille Bryan Native Garden

       Site 1: Corneille Bryan Native Garden, Lake Junaluska NC

    2,600 feet elevation (Stuart Circle, across from the rosewalk, near North Lakeshore Drive)

    Plantings (8 of 10 total plants) on the east-facing slope of a shallow south-facing ravine, beneath mostly deciduous full canopy, with 2 plants installed in a sunny more-developed area.

    10 potted seedlings from private seed source:
    Woodlanders Nursery in Aiken SC

    ♦ Click for PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION OF THE FIRST 10 PLANTINGS and ONGOING STATUS REPORTS.


    Left: Linda McFarland poses for photo-recording the site of the "Wangaari Mathai" planted seedling (visible beneath her flat palm).

    For more information: Janet Manning, janet_manning at yahoo.com

       Around 10:00 am the crew drives north from Jack Johnston's home in northeastern Georgia (see Jack at right), stopping at Franklin NC to pick up a new Torreya Guardian, Russell Regnery, who looks forward to purchasing his own set of Torreya seedlings from Woodlanders Nursery in Aiken SC for rewilding on his forested property west of Franklin.

          The caravan is met by Lee Barnes at the Welcome Center of Lake Junaluska (near Waynesville), for a pit stop. Lee then guides them to the parking area of Corneille Bryan Native Garden, where they are greeted by Linda McFarland and Jane Thomas (right).   


    Writer Janet Marinelli with "Rachel Carson", the fifth seedling planted.

       Lee Barnes orients the group and recruits Jack Johnston and Russell Regnery to follow him to the flagged sites and begin digging holes and planting the Torreya seedlings. Meanwhile, Connie recruits Michael Dowd to write names for the hand-held name signs, plant by plant. On the drive north, Connie had created a list of possible names (inspiring conservationists, botanists, and naturalists), and proposes a name for each site (with discussion ensuing about who that person is/was). Connie asks all crew members to pose with a name sign (such as Janet Marinelli posing with "Rachel Carson," left) somewhere during the action. Michael Dowd also uses a ballpoint pen to engrave the name into an aluminum botanical tag to be tied onto each seedling.

    Jane Thomas with sign for "Lucy Braun"

      

    Michael Dowd (crouching) with "Hazel Delcourt."
    Foreground: Janet Marinelli, Russell Regnery, Jane Thomas, and Lee Barnes. This was the only full-sun site selected, with 2 seedlings planted here ("Henry David Thoreau" is about to be planted to the right of Lee Barnes).


    ♦ Click for PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION OF THE FIRST 10 PLANTINGS and ONGOING STATUS REPORTS.




    Activity No. 3: Rewilding at Evans Property near Waynesville NC


       Site 2: Private land (Sara Evans / prior, Maxilla Evans) near Waynesville NC

    3,400 feet elevation

    Plantings (21 total plants) on south-facing mountain slope, beneath deciduous full canopy.

    20 potted seedlings from private seed source:
    Woodlanders Nursery in Aiken SC

    1 potted seedling, gift of Atlanta Botanical Garden

    ♦ Click for PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION OF THE FINAL 21 PLANTINGS and ONGOING STATUS REPORTS.


    Left: Michael Dowd poses for photo-recording the site of the "Stewart Udall" planted seedling (visible beneath his flat hand).

    After planting and documenting the 10 rewilded Torreya seedlings at Corneille Bryan Native Garden, the crew reassembled at the parking area. Linda McFarland donated copies of her book, Seasons in a Wildflower Refuge: An Illustrated Guide to the Corneille Bryan Native Garden, Lake Junaluska NC. Michael Dowd donated to participants his book, Thank God for Evolution. Jane Thomas closed out her effort at this point, but the remaining 10 crew members and Audubon documentors caravanned to the second and final rewilding site (name and location withheld from posting on this website).


       Lee Barnes (center, in orange) directs the crew as we assemble at the 3,400-foot elevation site. Looking on (left to right) are Ken Gehle, Chris Carder, Don Hooker, Michael Dowd, Janet Marinelli, and Russell Regnery. We will be planting the 21 seedlings on a fully forested mountain slope to the right, with future opportunities for squirrels to disperse subsequent generations of Torreya plants upslope for another 1,000 feet of elevation gain before topping out.
        As with the first plantings at Corneille Bryan Native Garden, about 25% of the seedlings receive soil amendments (sand, lime) at the time of planting, in our effort to accomplish "assisted colonization", with the remainder having a chance to show us how well they respond on their own to the actual soil conditions at this site ("assisted migration").
        Click here to learn about the debate over terminology.

              

    12 seedlings were planted on the steep south-facing slope. Michael Dowd touches "Thomas Jefferson"; Janet Marinelli and husband Don in background.

     

      
    9 seedlings planted near the ravine. "Maxilla Evans" is flagged by Russ Regnery at spring-fed cliff. Linda McFarland, Jack Johnston in front.

     


    Linda McFarland marks each site with yellow tape. She is marking "Charles Darwin", while Michael Dowd holds the sign of neighboring "Joanna Macy".

     

      
    Russ Regnery and Jack Johnston pause from tree planting to pose with the seedling named for 20th-century conservationist David Brower.

     


    "John James Audubon" seedling hidden by understory. Evergreen Torreya will surely take advantage of full sunlight in late fall and early spring.

     

      
    This little seedling was named after Pleistocene ecologist Paul Martin, who joined with Connie Barlow to write the 2004 pro-assisted-migration paper.

     


    Our youngest honoree: Julia Butterfly Hill.

     

      
    Local conservationist and forester Bob Zahner died in 2007.

     


    Connie Barlow sought out the steepest, most remote site to plant "Celia Hunter." Donated by the Atlanta Botanical Garden the previous December, this seedling has travelled the country with Connie since then. Significantly, its genotype is likely very different from the other 30 seedlings, which all come from 2 maternal and 1 paternal reproductive plants owned by Woodlanders Nursery

     .

      
    Close-up of "Celia Hunter" in the shadiest, wettest microhabitat on the property. The small glass container to its left contains some of the ashes of Celia Hunter, who died in 2001. Connie mixed a tablespoon of Celia's ashes into the soil around this plant. Celia was a beloved friend, mentor, and "Alaskan mother" of Connie's, and she was one of America's great conservationists of the post-World-War-II era.

     

    ♦ Click for PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION OF THE FINAL 21 PLANTINGS at Site 2 and ONGOING STATUS REPORTS.


        Listen to audio of CHANT-SONG
    created for and sung at the rewilding action

    (composed by Connie Barlow; sung by Connie and Michael)

      
        PERSONAL REFLECTIONS on the Rewilding Action:

    Connie Barlow (PDF) or AUDIO     
    Janet Marinelli (PDF)

        




    Activity No. 4: Spin-off Planting at Russell Regnery Property near Highlands NC


    Click here for
    Report of August 2008 planting of 10 T. taxifolia seedlings near Highlands, NC.



    Annotated List of Names for the 31 Rewilded Seedlings

    1. Chauncey Beadle, 1866-1950, botanist/horticulturalist who established a grove of Torreya taxifolia at the Biltmore Gardens (Asheville NC) some 80 years ago. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    2. Hardy Croom, 1797-1837, botanist who first observed and described for western science the genus Torreya (named after his colleague, the botanist John Torrey). The species he observed was the one then-flourishing along the east bank of the Apalachicola River in northern Florida — the very species that Torreya Guardians formed to assist. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    3. Asa Gray, 1810-1888, American botanist and chief American supporter of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. In the summer of 1875, Gray travelled to the Apalachicola of Florida, calling this journey "a pious pilgrimage to the secluded native haunts of that rarest of trees, the Torreya taxifolia." Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    4. Lucy Braun, 1889-1971, American botanist and ecologist whose life work culminated in a 1950 book still consulted today: Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America, in which she offers a classification for forest types within this floral province, based on decades of wide-ranging explorations of old-growth forests, now lost. She was also the first female president of the Ecological Society of America. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    5. Rachel Carson, 1739-1833, beloved American ecologist and writer whose courageous book Silent Spring is widely regarded as extending the conservation worldview into what is now regarded as environmentalism. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    6. William Bartram, 1729-1833, American naturalist and botanical collector (and illustrator) whose explorations (some with his father, John) culminated in important discoveries, including the only field observations of Franklinia alatamaha before it went extinct in the wild. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    7. Wangaari Mathai, born in Kenya in 1940, she founded the Greenbelt Movement in 1977, which encouraged and empowered African women and men to restore rural landscapes by planting trees. First African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    8. Aldo Leopold, 1887-1948, American forester regarded as one of the great founders of both the wilderness movement and the deep-ecology worldview. His compilation of essays, A Sand County Almanac, is widely regarded as one of the great documents of inspirited conservation writing, infused with heart and imagination as well as formidable scientific knowledge and experience. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    9. Hazel Delcourt, contemporary Quaternary paleoecologist (retired from University of Tennessee, Knoxville) who studied time sequences of pollens buried in bog sediments in order to track the migration of vegetation northward following the end of the peak glacial period 18,000 years ago. Her 2002 book, Forests in Peril: Tracking Deciduous Trees from Ice-Age Refuges into the Greenhouse World, inspired the email discussion about whether Torreya taxifolia might have been "left behind" in its glacial pocket reserve and thus might benefit from human assistance in moving it north. (This discussion then led to the formation of Torreya Guardians.) Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    10. Henry David Thoreau, 1817-1862, American naturalist and writer best known for his book Walden, and who is revered for his advocacy of simple living and the preservation of natural landscapes. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    11. Johnny Appleseed, 1774-1845, nickname of John Chapman, the legendary American who generously provisioned EuroAmerican settlers arriving in Ohio with apple seedlings and seeds. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    12. John Muir, 1838-1914, great American conservationist and founder of the Sierra Club. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    13. Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1846, American naturalist and statesman who envisioned the Lewis and Clark expedition while serving as the third president of the United States. Not only interested in finding a water route for westward commerce, Jefferson was hoping that the expedition would find solid evidence that such behemoths as mammoths, mastodons, and ground sloths (then known only via bones) still existed. He wrote, "Such is the economy of nature, that no instance can be produced of her having permitted any one race of her animals to become extinct, of her having formed any link in her great work so weak as to be broken." Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    14. Paul S. Martin, renowned contemporary Pleistocene ecologist and earliest advocate of the "Overkill Hypothesis" of end-Pleistocene extinctions. He was one of the communicants in the email correspondence that eventually led to the formation of Torreya Guardians. Co-author (with Connie Barlow) of the 2004 paper, "Bring Torreya taxifolia North — Now," which was published in Wild Earth. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    15. Mardy Murie, 1902-2003, called the "Grandmother of the Conservation Movement" in America, she was an early and powerful advocate for the establishment of wilderness areas in America, and the designation of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    16. Ed Abbey, 1927-1989, writer and conservationist whose radical proposals inspired many in the current generations of conservationists, including the founders of Earth First! Abbey heralded the idea that individuals, and small bands of individuals, need not be limited by the inertia of ideas and values. Rather, individuals could boldly step forward and act in behalf of wild species and wild places. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    17. Stewart Udall, born in 1920, a renowned conservationist who was able to make a big and lasting difference in the United States while serving as Secretary of Interior under the Kennedy and Johnson administrations (1961-1969). Successes included passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964 and the Endangered Species Act of 1966.

    18. Bill Mollison, born in 1928 (Tasmania), has been called "the father of permaculture," a term he helped establish in the 1970s to signify a worldview and action shift that would lead to truly sustainable ("permanent") forms of agriculture and human culture through the interworkings of both, often via smaller-scale, intentional communities. An inspirational mentor of Torreya Guardian (and permaculturist) Lee Barnes. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    19. Julia Butterfly Hill, born in 1974, a modern-day hero of the conservation and biodiversity movements and an inspirational force for young people, owing to her 2-year tree-sit in the ancient California Redwood tree which she called "Luna." By her example and her mentoring work, she empowers individuals to step forward and make a difference in defending the organisms, species, and natural places that one loves. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    20. John James Audubon, 1785-1851, renowned American naturalist and artist with an inordinate fondness for birds. His early warnings of the need to prohibit overhunting and habitat destruction were prescient and led to the founding of the early conservation magazine, Audubon. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    21. Charles Darwin, 1809-1882, renowned British naturalist whose attention to detail, wide-ranging curiosity, perseverence in studying the natural world and in pondering underlying causes led not only to his proposing the theory of natural selection as the underlying cause of biological "descent with modification," but also to his producing a book in 1859 that solidly established the fact of biological descent and thus the natural kinship of all living beings. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    22. Joanna Macy, born in 1929, a leader in the ecospirituality and deep-ecology movements who is a leader bringing heart (and heartbreak) into one's choice of action in the world. Co-developer (with John Seed) of the "Council of All Beings," an experiential process for connecting with the suffering of species threatened by human actions. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    23. Loren Eiseley, 1907-1977, naturalist and renowned American essayist who pioneered a form of writing that married the science of evolution with autobiographical vignettes, profound inward reflections, and poetic imagery to produce works that have inspired many a conservationist — among them, Annie Dillard and Torreya Guardian Connie Barlow. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    24. Julian Huxley, 1887-1975, evolution scientist, award-winning writer, leading conservationist, and world-renowned popularizer of the "evolutionary epic" in the mid 20th Century. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    25. Kokopelli, an important figure in the stories of some indigenous peoples of the warm deserts of Turtle Island (a.k.a., North America). Kokopelli is portrayed as a wanderer who carries seeds and music from one culture to another. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    26. David Brower, 1912-2000, renowned American conservationist who led the Sierra Club during the push for writing and passage of the Wilderness Act of 1966. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    27. Annie Dillard , acclaimed writer best known by conservationists for her first book, Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, which (as with Eisleley's books) married a scientific and evolutionary outlook with deeply spiritual and poetic musings. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    28. Bob Zahner, 1923-2007, forester and conservationist, especially of the Highlands region of North Carolina. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    29. Berry, Thomas, born 1914 in Greensboro NC, ecospiritual leader of the "epic of evolution" movement and proponent of "biocracy" (a democracy that expressly includes the voice of all species in decision-making). He is a proponent of a "mutually enhancing human-Earth relationship." Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    - OR -

    29. Berry, Wendell, born 1934 in Henry County KY, renowned writer, poet, and proponent of sustainable rural economies. He is an inspiration to the bioregional movement.

    30. Maxilla Everett Evans, 1917-2007, native plant activist and land conservator in the mountains of North Carolina. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.

    31. Celia Hunter, 1919-2001, celebrated Alaskan conservationist who became president (and, later, executive director) of the Wilderness Society during preparation and advocacy for the "Alaska National Interest Lands and Conservation Act" (enacted in 1980). Celia was a close friend of Mardy Murie and a beloved friend and mentor of Torreya Guardian Connie Barlow. Click for full HISTORY and PHOTOS of this named tree, from planting of seedling to current.



    Lee Barnes returns to Evans Property site
    November 2008. Here, by seedling "Loren Eiseley"
    he holds up a photo he took 20 years ago of the
    biggest Torreya taxifolia tree: a female in
    Norlina, NC. She is "Grandma" to all but one
    (all but "Celia") of the 31 seedlings that
    were planted in NC July 2008. The 2 female
    trees and one male that parented these
    seedlings were offspring of the Norlina tree.

       




  • CHRONOLOGY of events leading up to the rewilding action

  • PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION and UPDATES of the 10 seedlings planted at LAKE JUNALUSKA, NC

  • PHOTO-DOCUMENTATION and UPDATES of the 21 seedlings planted WAYNESVILLE, NC

  • Annotated list of on-line articles and news on ASSISTED MIGRATION

  • Discussion on TERMINOLOGY: assisted "migration" v. "colonization"

  • "WHAT WE ARE LEARNING ABOUT TORREYA'S HABITAT PREFERENCES" (current report)

        Listen to audio of CHANT-SONG
    created for and sung at the rewilding action

    (composed by Connie Barlow; sung by Connie and Michael)

      
       PERSONAL REFLECTIONS on the Rewilding Action:  

    Connie Barlow      Janet Marinelli

       Feature Article in Audubon Magazine
    "Guardian Angels"
    May/June 2010)




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